Public Diplomacy considers diplomacy in the whole new context by considering the importance of ethics, values, communication, socialization etc. Mainly, the presence and importance of identities in plays a very significant role in the International system for the international diplomacy.
As power dimensions have shifted in a changed global environment new dimensions have become necessary to bring power. In past hard power was important but in today’s global environment soft power is crucial for states and with the change of time new dimensions are evolving to clarify the effective use of soft power as, such as Cosmopolitan Constructivism. Universalistic and normative foreign policy ideas can be attained with the help of Public diplomacy as it works like a constitutive camp for it like the building of comprehensive communication channels with international societies, befriending other nations, and the understanding and accepting the cultures different of other societies from ours.
In public diplomatic terms, this would indicate emphasizing the long-term foreign policy goals and objectives, or complete gains side of the equation, where countries do not expect to become friends with each other overnight or immediately, actually trying to encourage and engage their societies to join in a process of societal exchanges and common understanding ,moving step by step just like ally-friend theory as now there is a new international political culture has arose in West within which team-play and non-violence are the norms.
International interests are not just interests that states have to progress in order to improve their separate national interest instead they are now part of the national interest; friendship and collaboration is a priority now. The refinement of friendship in a global world among nations permits the success of the Kantian notion of an everlasting peace world order, where the benefits of humankind must thrive over the comforts of the individual.
Diplomats not only pursue or aim to represent their states to the world but also seek to represent that world back to their very own states, with the aim and objective of keeping everyone together. Diplomats have an assignment and mission to report the other states’ views and interests on cultural activities and global issues, a responsibility for the task assigned. The representation of the other states back to their countries is a diplomatic problem that keeps international relations keep changing where these situations may be picked up as examples in which diplomats are engaged in the maintenance, construction, and representation of different identities to one another.
Chinese Public Diplomacy:
The image of a nation is critical in the conduct of international relations. As an emerging and rising power, China is continuously and increasingly concerned about its image, due to which it is increasingly investing and advancing into its public diplomacy. Public diplomacy has become one of the important part of China’s overall diplomacy in last few years. China recognizes the international environment potentially aggressive, and China wants to be seen by the outside world as a peaceful, friendly, and reliable partner. Although the non-Chinese address it focuses on exchange, mutuality, and reciprocal communication, China is more concerned with getting its message out and convincing the world of its benign, soft and gentle intentions.
The People’s Republic of China is a great example to understand the process of identity change through socialization. The country, although still Communist, has evolved their economic institution and policy in a manner which can only be described as one of a kind owing to the amalgamation of Communism and Capitalism. Moreover, in the beginning, China-focused upon the internal development of their country and the running of the state. However, the contemporary shift from an internal focus to the external shift where China has increased its role in the international affairs has shown that China’s identity and aims have changed from those which it exhibited at the height of Communism. The public diplomacy efforts of China are directed at representing China as a country with Cosmopolitan values and a vision of peaceful rise rather than portraying it as a hegemony. China despite the fact it issues warnings against nations who claim their rights in the South China Sea and in addition having their naval forces there, they still claim themselves to be a peacefully rising nation.
For example, China is now using Pandas as a way to co-operate and communicate with other states and helps foster relationships with other countries. Pandas are such creatures that attract tourists and people all over the world. China’s initiative of using Pandas as a means of diplomacy is merely not based just on fulfilling the purpose of their conservation but to serve Chinese diplomatic aims. This, in its deep sense, represents to rest of the world that China loves Pandas and animals and are paving way for the conservation of wildlife. This ultimately gives a message of positivity and goodwill in rest of the world that how much China is concerned to keep the wildlife safe, protected and secure.
Another great example that shows how China passed its new tourism law to punish the travelers’ violations abroad. After the Beijing Olympics tourists got more attracted towards China as well as tourism from China to other parts of the world became a major tourism chunk of the world tourist attractions. This increased states’ concerns about the bad manners and etiquettes of Chinese tourists abroad which created a hype in media and greatly affected Chinese image and soft power abroad. Chinese government and authorities soon came to realize that this is affecting the international image of China to a great extent and thus, steps are needed to rebuild its public image. China promoted good gestures and values as a means of diplomacy and to gain a positive public opinion. They then started promoting good and civilized behaviors such as throwing the rubbish in rubbish cans, queuing, not spitting, volunteerism etc. Started giving guidelines for ensuring correct behavior, for example, looking after the surroundings, focusing on hygiene and avoiding unhealthy activities. In result, came the New Tourism law that abides the tourists by following professional ethics, to have respect for customs, religious beliefs, have respect for other tourists, show them good gestures and guide them and discourage any kind of unethical behavior. Tourists must respect local customs, protect the environment etc. This law clearly represented that China is very keen on its image abroad and clearly considers its people as image ambassadors of their state. That’s how China when its image got affected due to uncivilized behavior of its own citizens abroad changed the outlook of world towards them by constructing their identity as good by incorporating in their diplomacy cosmopolitan values such as being united with rest of the world when it comes to environmental protection and can punish its own citizens even when it comes to the violations of any global norm. This quickly changed world’s identity towards China.
Perceptions and behavior of both China’s domestic and international publics have growing impacts on Chinese Public diplomacy. China is increasingly using public diplomacy to create an image of China as more trustworthy, co-operative, peace-loving, developing country that is taking good care of the enormous population and creating a harmonious world and playing a positive role in world affairs. China is now engaging publics for long-term trustworthy relationships, unlike Chinese tradition to create the identity of China as a peaceful responsible nation which does not threaten world peace and order. This can also be seen by Chinese rise by their theory of harmonious world followed by their peaceful rise. Chinese diplomats are more and more connected to the local public to change its identity in the eyes of public and in turn rest of the world too. China’s rise as peaceful is also effectively being portrayed by using economic opportunities to other businesses abroad and creating a positive image in their minds rather than a threat. China utilized its public diplomacy very well to be seen as striving for a harmonious world and to give its people a better life and to be seen as a reliable, stable economic power that does not have to be feared.